Glossary - S
Sand – Soil particles ranging in size between 0.2 to 2 mm.
Sanitation – Removing sources of pests so as few pests as possible get into your garden.
Scouting – Regularly checking crops for pests and damage symptoms; looking in your garden to determine if pests are a problem.
Seaweed meal – Seaweed that has been dried and ground into a fine powder. It contains many different compounds that may affect plant growth.
Seed – A dormant undeveloped plant.
Seed coat – The outer “skin” on a seed that protects it from the environment.
Seedless watermelon – Self-sterile watermelon hybrids that develop normal looking fruits, but no fully developed seeds.
Semi-organic or organically based – An organic fertilizer that has had potassium sulfate added.
Side dress – The process of applying soil amendments or fertilizers next to an emerged vegetable crop.
Side-dressing – Applying fertilizer in a band near the crop row after the crop has emerged.
Silt – Soil particles between 0.002 and 0.05 mm in size.
Slicing cucumbers – Cucumbers that are 8to 14 inches long with dark skin and used for salads, sandwiches, and soups
Soil crust – A hard surface layer that can form on some soils after rains.
Soil-less media – A growth media not containing field soil.
Soil texture – The coarseness or fineness of soil particles.
Soluble salts – Chemical compounds, many plant nutrients, that disassociate into positively and negatively charged ions.
Starch-based biodegradable mulch – Mulch made from plastic that contains starch, which is degraded by bacteria.
Succession plantings – Growing crops so that they mature at different times.
Sugar enhancer sweet corn cultivars – Cultivars that contain the sugar enhancer (se) gene, which significantly raises the sugar content of their kernels above standard cultivars.
Sugary sweet corn cultivars – Cultivars that contain the “sugary gene,” have less initial kernel sugar than other sweet corn types, and that sugar is rapidly converted into starch after harvest.
Summer annuals – Weeds that germinate in the spring, grow during the spring and produce seed during the fall.
Summer squash – Squash whose fruit is harvested when immature before the rind hardens.
Supersweet cultivars – Cultivars that contain the shrunken-2 (sh2) gene which slows the conversion of sugar to starch, allowing these cultivars to hold their sweetness much longer than su or se types.
Sweet corn – Types of corn that produces and retains large amounts of sugars in its kernels, the skins of the kernels are tender and wrinkle when dried.
Symptoms – The outward appearance of a plant, which is attacked by a disease or insect.
Synthetic fertilizers – A fertilizer whose nutrients are concentrated and converted into a form that is readily available in the soil.
Synthetic mulches – Mulch from a man-made product such as plastic.
Synthetic pesticides – A pesticide synthesized from petroleum – derived chemicals.